Umami, the fifth flavor, is one of the five basic flavors, along with the sensations of sweet, sour, salty and bitter taste. It is most commonly defined as “salty”, but the characteristics of umami can also be described as “meaty”, complex, or even simply “delicious”. Umami, also known as monosodium glutamate, is one of the fifth major flavors, including sweet, sour, bitter and salty. Umami means “essence of delight” in Japanese, and its flavor is often described as the meaty, savory treat that deepens flavor. Umami is often described as a flavor that “spreads over the tongue and covers it”.
Experiments in the areas of taste receptivity of the tongue have shown that sweet and salty flavors are most intensely perceived on the tip of the tongue, while umami is perceived throughout the tongue. Umami is the flavor of amino acids and nucleotides, and it tells us when a food contains proteins, an essential nutrient for survival. We also know that the umami component of foods increases as a result of processing, such as maturation and fermentation. Kaiseki restaurants can serve equally enjoyable, low-calorie or low-salt diets using umami or dashi.
In an experiment that compared egg droplet soup prepared according to a standard recipe with soup made with extra umami, it was discovered that the salt in umami-enhanced soup could be reduced by around 30 percent without loss of palatability. Umami Burger, for example, is a chain of restaurants known for its gourmet hamburger with key umami ingredients, such as shiitake mushrooms, fire-roasted tomatoes, caramelized onions, umami tomato sauce and crunchy Parmesan. The characteristic flavor of meat arises when meat protein breaks down during the aging process and increases the free glutamate contained in umami. On the other hand, umami is also found in several foods that do have health benefits, such as kimchi, seafood, cabbage, mushrooms, asparagus and ripe tomatoes.
Some population groups, such as the elderly, may benefit from the umami flavor because their sensitivity to taste and smell may be affected by age and medications. Most taste buds on the tongue and other regions of the mouth can detect the umami flavor, regardless of location. Umami is also found in a variety of foods and is familiar to us because of the taste of traditional foods, such as soy sauce, miso and cheese. The main substances in umami are glutamate, inosinate and guanylate, and it has been scientifically proven that umami is perceived much more strongly when they are not present individually, but rather when glutamate is combined with inosinate or guanylate.
Since the word “umami” is originally Japanese and the Japanese expressions “having umami” and “umai” can mean “flavor” or “delicious”, umami is often confused with “delicious”. The strength of the umami synergy between glutamate and inosinate varies according to the proportions of each. Of these various elements, umami, in balance with the other basic flavors (sweet, sour, salty and bitter), plays an important role in determining the deliciousness of a dish. He realized that the taste of kombu dashi was different from sweet, sour, bitter and salty and called it umami.
Scientists identified the taste receptors for umami in the human tongue in 2002 (along with sweet, sour, bitter and salty taste buds).